Friday, May 22, 2020
Another good example can be found on page 28 wherein the author mentioned that Goody Cloyse covered himself up as a pious and exemplary dame, who had taught him his catechism in youth, (Hawthorne 26) but is a witch, complete with a broomstick and evil magic spells. Hawthorne s irony makes him suggest, tongue-in-cheek, that her muttering is a prayer, doubtless (29). The supposedly holy minister and Good old Deacon Gookin (Hawthorne 61) is actually only pretending to show the image of holiness. The Puritans are referring to the English Protestants during the 16th and 17th century who are expected to practice strict religious discipline (Farlex Dictionary). In the short story, Hawthorne described the Puritan society as the grave, reputable, and pious people, these elders of the church, these chaste dames and dewy virgins (57) in bright colors of sin. Even the hymn sung at the satanic gathering is cloaked in the slow and mournful strain, such as the pious love, but joined to words which expressed all that our nature can conceive of sin, and darkly hinted at far more (Hawthorne 59). We will write a custom essay sample on Young Goodman Brown: Irony, Madness and Symbolism or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page According to Hawthorne (17), a race of honest men and good Christians since the days of the martyrs are actually the close acquaintances of the devil. For instance, the public figures of New England, who Goodman Brown thinks are a people of prayer, and good works to boot, and abide no such wickedness (Hawthorne 19) are revealed to be sinners.
Thursday, May 7, 2020
Over 200,000 demonstrators participated in the March on Washington in the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s capital on August 28, 1963. The purpose of the march was to gain civil rights for African Americans. There was a wide diversity in those who participated, with a quarter of all the demonstrators being white (Ross). Even southern people came to contribute which caused them to be harassed and threatened for coming to the march. The March on Washington became a very successful event for the rights of African Americans, and amended several peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ view-points towards the topic, even President John KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s. Ã¢â¬Å"The president feared that it might make the legislature vote against civil rights laws in reaction to a perceived threat. Once it became clear that theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦No one had a clue how many would actually come out to help the support in the capital, but as previously stated there were over 200,000 people that showed up to participate. As the people protes ted they marched from the Washington Monument to the Lincoln memorial. All the civil-rights leaders of the Ã¢â¬Å"Big SixÃ¢â¬ spoke at the march. However, James Farmer could not attend the march because he was imprisoned therefore he had Floyd McKissick speak on his behalf through FarmerÃ¢â¬â¢s own speech (Ross). The peak speech celebrated during this event was when Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King said his speech which became to be known as the Ã¢â¬Å"I Have a Dream.Ã¢â¬ The one female speaker was Josephine Baker, who introduced several Negro Women Fighters for Freedom, including Rosa ParksÃ¢â¬ (Ross). Police were everywhere at the rally, but they were not needed because the protest was non-violent and was more of a civil and peaceful protest. Prayers were a big part of the March on Washington and lead to everyone rejoicing the moments made. The musical acts were a key part of the demonstration and brought a way of celebration to this event. The speakers and the singers preformed on the same podium with the same microphone (Tomasky). Songs that were sung at this event became very popular and got on the top billboard charts and are still recognized today. A huge performance was made by Bob Dylan, a man well known to this day, and also a woman named Joan Baez. The musical acts wereShow MoreRelatedEssay on The March on Washington - August 28, 19631344 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe March on Washington - August 28, 1963 One hundred years after the Emancipation Proclamation was written, African Americans were still fighting for equal rights in every day life. The first real success of this movement did not come until the Brown vs. Board of Education decision in 1954 which was followed by many boycotts and protests. The largest of these protests, the March on Washington, was held on August 28, 1963 Ã¢â¬Å"for jobs and freedomÃ¢â¬ (March on Washington 11). An incredible amount ofRead MoreAnalysis of the Civil Rights March of 1963988 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDocument Analysis, of the Civil Rights March of 1963 Commencing in the late 19th century, state level governments approved segregation acts, identified as the Jim Crow laws, and assigned limitations on voting requirements that caused the African American population economically and diplomatically helpless (Davis, n.d.). The civil rights movement commenced, intensely and assertively, in the early 1940s when the societal composition of black America took an increasingly urban, popular appeal (KorstadRead MoreMarch on Washington Causes and Consequences Essay1522 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMarch On Washington Ã¢â¬â Causes and consequences essay Final The march on Washington in August 1963 is seen by many as the high point of the Civil Rights movement in America. This essay will look at how dissatisfaction with the slow pace of integration growing concern at the economic disparity between black and white Americans, the campaign in Birmingham under Martin Luther King juniors leadership, and the desire to support the proposed civil rights bill that Kennedy was introducing were the mainRead MoreA Philip Randolph1711 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe man having a fair trial, but at least he had not been lynched. Because continuing education was not the norm for African Americans, Asa and his brother looked for work after graduating high school. Asa landed a job at the Union Life insurance Company. He then floated from job to job. Reverend James had different anticipations for his boys. Knowing that his first born never really followed his faith, he turned to Asa in hopes of him becoming a minister. The reverend felt that he would be idealRead MoreEssay about Martin Luther Kings Speech in Jobs and Freedom962 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMartin Luther Kings Speech in Jobs and Freedom Martin Luther KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"I Have a DreamÃ¢â¬ speech was presented during the Ã¢â¬ËJobs and FreedomÃ¢â¬â¢ March, which was held on 28th August, 1963 near the Lincoln Memorial in Washington. The march was supported by over 250 000 people and was a great success. About one third of the crowd was white. That day several speeches were delivered however, Martin Luther KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"I Have a DreamÃ¢â¬ was and still is one of the most powerful and movingRead MoreAnalysis Of The Article Signs Carried By Many Marchers 997 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBy 1963, the Washington D.C. public schools had been integrated, as had the military, the federal work force, and public accommodations in the city, but the racial controversy was still an ongoing debate around the nation. Marion TrikoskoÃ¢â¬â¢s photograph titled Ã¢â¬Å"Signs Carried by Many Marchers, During the March on WashingtonÃ¢â¬ was taken on August 28, 1963 during the march for jobs and freedom at the District of Columbia. It is one of the pictures in the Ã¢â¬Å"Civil Rights- A Long RoadÃ¢â¬ collection from theRead MoreCritical Analysis Of Martin Luther Kings I Have A Dream775 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdelivered during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom on 28 August 1963. This march was initially organized to focus on the economy, but as the date grew near, the focus shifted to social issues in the country. This march was attended by more than two hundred thousan d people, to include the many actors, musicians, and the civil rights leaders. Martin Luther King said Ã¢â¬Å"I am happy to join you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of ourRead MoreAnalysis Of Speech At The March On Washington1146 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthrough. This oration was given on the March on Washington D.C. and it was dubbed Ã¢â¬Å"Speech At The March On WashingtonÃ¢â¬ , which was given by John Lewis. This lecture had a persuasive element towards it because John Lewis used logical reasoning (logos), his or others credibility/character (ethos), and emotional reasoning (pathos) in a perfect mix. This speech was given during the March on Washington, where John Lewis and several other civil rights leaders led a march in order to protest the discriminationRead MoreThe Civil Rights Movement Essay967 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfinally be thought of as equals. They fought to earn their civil rights which is where the movement got its name from. There are many names that stand out when you think of the Civil Rights Movement, for example, Martin Luther King Jr. who lead a march to Washington and gave the famous Ã¢â¬Å"I have a DreamÃ¢â¬ speech, and there is also Rosa Parks who refused to sit in the back of the bus and render her seat to a white person. They are all interconnected in one way or another, with each of their actions and teachingsRead MoreCivil Rights: The Most Pressing Domestic Issue for the Kennedy and Johnson Administrations994 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesin that region from the Democratic Party. Even so, when forced to take sides during the Freedom Rides of 1961, the integra tion fights at the University of Mississippi in 1962 and the University of Alabama the next year, Kennedy chose to support the side of integration and equal citizenship, and this did indeed cost him popular support among Southern whites. After the marches to desegregate Birmingham in 1963, he publicly endorsed the Civil Rights Act, although this did not become law until after
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Castles of the Middle Ages In the 1 lth century, castles were served as the homes and fortresses of monarchs or nobles. They were also huge protection camps for the kings; they included every kind of defense known to medieval man. Anything from a moat, to murder holes, to arrow loops and this was all for the safety and protection of royalty. We will write a custom essay sample on Medieval castles or any similar topic only for you Order Now Overtime, the material used to build these castles improved by the matter of defense. Their purpose was extremely reasonable and a threat to many, but it was the private esidence of a king, not only for his families, but his dependents as well. Castles were built mainly on steep hills or even on cliffs, they were surrounded by wooden palisades and had many tactics of defense. With all of these strategies built into the castles, it was nearly impossible for enemies or intruders to trespass. However, castles werenÃ¢â¬â¢t always built so sturdy, or such a great idea at that matter, they used to be made of wood and earth. When people realized how much easier it was for them to be destroyed simply by being burned to the ground, they were then pgraded to stone and led. Castles were rarely made to be a comfortable place to live, since their purpose was for safety. The average castle had over 20 rooms, and not one was made for comfort. The Ground Floor usually was Just the kitchen and the storage room, the first floor was usually known as The Great Hall used for celebrations and ballroom dances, and the top floors were occupied by the lord and his family members. The dungeon however, is the room most people are curious about. It was a room usually located underground under a tower. This room was ntended for keeping prisoners, and in the most extreme scenarios, used for torture. The reason for the location of the dungeon was because the screams and cries were hardly ever heard. The castles also contained small personal chapels but this was the only room that anybody was able to visit since the Medieval Christian Church took over the everyday lives and religious views of all people; its purpose was for prayer and asking god for forgiveness. These chapels were often built with a horizontally divided nave and were usually two stories high. The nobles and dignitaries sat in the upper level and the servants would sit in the lower levels of the chapel. The chapel was possibly the most perfectly furnished, richly decorated, and colorful room in the building. Since the time spent on prayer was expected four times a day, the chapel was occupied upon rising, at noon, in the evening, and before bedtime. They also consisted of crystal-like windows, which each had a meaning or story to it. Whether it was an image of God, The Virgin Mary, or even Just the angels in whom they believed were everywhere watching over them. The outside of the castle wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t so pretty however, it may have seemed nice and peaceful from the outside but it was quite a surprise for others who attempted to trespass. It all starts when the king or lord places 14-year-old boys under the supervision of knights so they can learn a thing or two about chivalry, how to defend themselves with a sword, how to ride the horses into the battles, and so forth; these along with watchmen, guards, knights, and a porter to open up the main door. They each had their own positions and their own skills to rely on, some were trained rossbowmen, archers, lancers, and some Just had swords to defend themselves. The castle guards had to spend all day in front of a castle and staying alert. Even though these castles were made of stone, there were still a couple of possibilities that the enemy couldVe destroyed at least a part of the castle if they intended to, but it was rarely accomplished considering how difficult it was. Not only were courageous men securing the building, but they were even made in a way that it would force the attackers to spend more time and money trying to destroy it. The first line of defense toward an enemy and his crowd were the archers at the top of the castle. These men launched incendiary arrows with their bows, making the enemyÃ¢â¬â¢s wooden catapults engulf in flames. Along with that, the second line of defense was the lancers. They were men, with a sword-like weapon, riding on their horses fighting through the opposing crowd going around the building, taking out those who were a threat to the castle. Last but not least, the knights were the soldiers that were, most of the time, ositioned at the front of the gate and drawbridge. Their weapons were usually swords and axes and their suits were made of armor, hence the reason they were strategically positioned near the gates in case of any attackers that got too close. There was a lot of effort and money put into these castles to get them to be almost indestructible and they were no doubt an important lifestyle to royalty. They were the palaces of the nobles and the monarchs; they were a place for the kings family and dependents to feel safe and powerful. How to cite Medieval castles, Papers
Monday, April 27, 2020
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain 1. The Author and His Times Mark Twain, the pen name of Samuel Clemens, was born in Florida, Missouri in 1835. When he was four, his family moved to Hannibal, Missouri, the setting for many of his books. His father died when he was 12. After his father died, he went to work as a printer's apprentice and eventually as a printer in Missouri, St. Louis, and New York often writing a few works himself for periodicals. He worked as a printer and a reporter selling much of his work to newspapers. He continually moved from town to town. In 1857, he decided to move to South America to make a fortune there. He boarded a riverboat and headed for New Orleans where he would arrange the rest of his trip. However, he never made it past New Orleans and never into South America. He begged the riverboat to teach him how to pilot the riverboat. The riverboat pilot agreed to teach him for $500. Mark Twain went west during the civil war and established himself as a writer during this time. He wrote humorous stories about his experiences which lead to a job as a newspaper reporter in 1862. The following year he began signing his work "Mark Twain," a riverboat term meaning two fathoms deep. Mark Twain went to Hawaii in 1866. This trip was the beginning of his career as a travel correspondent. The next year he went to Europe and wrote a successful book there titled, The Innocent Abroad. In 1876, he published The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. This book was such a success that he decided immediately to write a sequel. The sequel, which became much more complex than the original was published seven years later in 1883 and titled, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. After Huckleberry Finn, Twain wrote nearly a dozen more books but none were as successful. By 1939, Twain had lost all of his money investing in various schemes and inventions, almost all of which were failures. After this, he went on a world lecture tour and was able to pay his debts by 1896. While on the tour, one of his daughters died. His wife later in 1904. In 1909 his daughter died leaving him unhappy. 2. Form, Structure, and Plot The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn consists of 43 chapters and is told in the first person with Huck Finn telling the story. The book divides into three sections. The first sections has Huck living his Miss Watson and her sister in civilization. During the second section, Huck travels down the river with Jim. In the last section, Huck returns to civilization and lives with Tom in Uncle Silas' farm. An organizational object in the book is the river which serves as a timeline for the book. The first section introduces Huck and his current life living with Miss Watson and Later with his father. This section ends were Huck fakes his death and flees to Jackson Island. In the second section, Huck meets Jim at the island and starts down the river when they find out that Jim is being searched for. Huck runs from civilization and Jim runs from slavery. This section ends when both Jim and Huck make it to Uncle Silas' farm. The third sections takes place at the farm and continues to the end of the book. Although the book divides itself into three sections, it does not divide itself to neatly into rising action, climax and conclusion since the book consists of several adventures with its own rising action, climax, and conclusion. It is difficult to label a single point as the climax. The book clearly starts with the exposition where Huck introduced himself as a character from Tom Sawyer and the son of a town drunk. He lived with Widow Douglas and her sister, Miss Watson. However, Huck did not like the civilized life and would rather live an easy going life. Huck's father finds out that Huck has some money and kidnaps him into a shack by the river. Pap beats Huck and Huck decides that he must escape. Huck fakes his death and flees to Jackson Island. On the island, he meets Jim, Miss Watson's runaway slave. This is the rising action. When the find that there are men on the island searching for Jim, they decide to travel down the Mississippi river and up the Ohio river into the free states. On the river, they live an easy life as they travel during the night and hide during the day. Traveling down the
Thursday, March 19, 2020
20 Essay Topics About Abortion If you are tasked with writing a controversial abortion essay, you may be unsure of where to start or what makes for a viable topic. Below you will find 20 useful topics that can be used as a potential topic for your assignment. Make sure you review the details of your assignment first to ensure that the topic you select complies: Rates of Women Having Abortions after Already Having a Child in an Area of Your Choice. The Safety of Online Medical Services Offering Abortion Information and Medication for Women Whose Country Has No Such Service. The Necessity of Confirming Pregnancies before and after Abortions. Contraceptive Failures and Abortion. Demographics of Women Seeking Abortions in an Area of Your Choice. Age Breakdown of Women Seeking Abortions in an Area of Your Choosing. Whether Religion Limits the Safe Access to Abortions. Financial Background of Women Seeking Abortions in an Area of Your Choice. Religious Identification of Women Seeking Abortions in an Area of Your Choice. Medications and Pain Management for Abortions. Safe Post-Abortion Follow up Procedures. What to Do When Medical Abortions Are Incomplete. The Reliability of Medical Abortions. The Reliability of Surgical Abortions. When to Terminate the Pregnancy So That It is the Safest. What Abortion Procedures Are Recommended for Which Gestation Periods. Current Laws on Abortion in a Country of Your Choosing. Most Common Reasons Women Seek Abortions around the World. Correlation between Low Income WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Abortion Rights and High Instance of Rape. How Safe and Immediate Access to Abortion Services Can Reduce HIV Transmission and Help Reduce Complicated Pregnancies. Well, given that it can still be a bit challenging to understand how to write a controversial essay on abortion worldwide, weÃ¢â¬â¢ve prepared important facts that add up to these topics. There are writing tips on controversial essays as well, so donÃ¢â¬â¢t hesitate to use them. Below is a sample essay on one of the topics above: Sample Controversial Essay on the Safety of Abortion Techniques The issue of safe access to abortion is one which remains a high priority for the World Health Organization, and many other organizations because it is severely limited around the world and in some cases unsafe or less-than-ideally-safe situations arise. There are safe ways to induce abortion in multiple periods of gestation. Women who are in specific periods of their pregnancy can safely and effectively terminate their abortions through medical or surgical procedures. However, in some cases women are not granted access to the safe services they require when they require them. Because each technique is based on a time period for gestation, getting services immediately is imperative for women. There are still countries which do not have the available services either because they lack the funding or the qualified doctors or because their laws prohibit such services. In order to combat such situations, websites have risen up offering confidential services to women online to meet the dem and, but the question of safety in these techniques has remained a controversial subject within an already controversial topic. Based on the gestation period, women have two options for their abortions: surgical or medical. For the surgical procedure, a vacuum is used to remove the fetus. This is an in-house procedure which requires proper surgical tools and equipment. This is the recommended procedure for gestation between 12 and 14 weeks. It is also the last legal resort in places like the United States for abortions due to medical complications beyond that time period. If a medical abortion is incomplete, this is the alternative option used. For the medical abortion there are two medications, the first of which is taken orally and the second of which is either taken orally or vaginally depending on how far along the gestation is. If the gestation is under 9 weeks, it can be taken orally 24-48 hours after the first medication. If the gestation is between 9 and 12 weeks it is taken vaginally 36-48 hours after the first medication. Women under 9 weeks can opt for the surgical method if they so choose, but the medical method is recommended first. The websites which offer these services will only provide them in countries where the women cannot access what they need. There are still countries which do not have the available services either because they lack the funding or the qualified doctors or because their laws prohibit such services. In any case, the websites will allow women to either locate appropriate services in their country, or seek services through the mail. In these cases, time is truly of the essence because the medical abortion is the only abortion method which can be administered via mail. The service will confidentially send the necessary instructions and medications and complete follow up services online for those in need. Of course, if there are delays in the arrival of the package, or a potential complication, the women must seek immediate and local help in their country which might bring with it further improper care or potential legal complications if what they did was against the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s laws. The medication provided is done so after the women confirm they are pregnant. It is recommended by the site that the women obtain a blood test (something often completely legal and safe in countries who do not have abortion services). This in tandem with a urine test can confirm the pregnancy and the gestation period. With this information, women can access the appropriate medication for their situation. The potential for unsafe techniques in this case lies with the validity of the results and the validity of what the women report. But this risk remains the same regardless of where the woman is located. The other issue is that the women may not take the medication properly, something which, again, is an issue no matter where they are located. That being said, the potential unsafe abortions offered by such services run the same risks as any other service and are therefore just as safe and effective as any other service. References: Currie, Stephen.Ã Abortion. San Diego, Calif.: Greenhaven Press, 2000. Print. Merino, NoeÃËl.Ã Abortion. Print. Mohr, James C.Ã Abortion In America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978. Print. Noonan, John Thomas.Ã A Private Choice, Abortion In America In The Seventies. New York: Free Press, 1979. Print. Olasky, Marvin N.Ã Abortion Rites. Wheaton, Ill.: Crossways Books, 1992. Print. Omran, Abdel R.Ã Liberalization Of Abortion Laws. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1976. Print. Podell, Janet.Ã Abortion. New York: H.W. Wilson Co., 1990. Print.
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Habitat Loss, Fragmentation, and Destruction Habitat loss refers to the disappearance of natural environments that are home to particular plants and animals. There are three major types of habitat loss: habitat destruction, habitat degradation, and habitat fragmentation. Habitat Destruction Habitat destruction is the process by which natural habitat is damaged or destroyed to such an extent that it no longer is capable of supporting the species and ecological communities that naturally occur there. It often results in the extinction of species and, as a result, the loss of biodiversity. Habitat can be destroyed directly by many human activities, most of which involve the clearing of land for uses such as agriculture, mining, logging, hydroelectric dams, and urbanization. Although much habitat destruction can be attributed to human activity, it is not an exclusively man-made phenomenon. Habitat loss also occurs as a result of natural events such as floods, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and climate fluctuations. Although habitat destruction primarily causes species extinctions, it can also open up new habitat that might provide an environment in which new species can evolve, thus demonstrating the resiliency of life on Earth. Sadly, humans are destroying natural habitats at a rate and on spatial scales that exceed what most species and communities can cope with. Habitat Degradation Habitat degradation is another consequence of human development. It is causedÃ indirectly by human activities such as pollution, climate change, and the introduction of invasive species, all of which reduce the quality of the environment, making it difficult for native plants and animals to thrive. Habitat degradation is fueled by a fast-growing human population. As the population increases, humans use more land for agriculture and for the development of cities and towns spread out over ever-widening areas. The effects of habitat degradation not only affect native species and communities but human populations as well. Degraded lands are frequently lost to erosion, desertification, and nutrient depletion. Habitat Fragmentation Human development also leads to habitat fragmentation, as wild areas are carved up and split into smaller pieces. Fragmentation reduces animal ranges and restricts movement, placing animals in these areas at higher risk of extinction. Breaking up habitat can also separate animal populations, reducing genetic diversity. Conservationists often seek to protect habitat in order to save individual animal species. For example, the Biodiversity Hotspot program organized by Conservation International protects fragile habitats around the world. The groups aim is to protect biodiversity hotspots that contain high concentrations of threatened species, such as Madagascar and the Guinean Forests of West Africa. These areas are home to a unique array of plants and animals found nowhere else in the world. Conservation International believes that saving these hotspots is key to protecting the planets biodiversity. Habitat destruction is not the only threat facing wildlife, but it is quite likely the greatest. Today, it is taking place at such a rate that species are beginning to disappear in extraordinary numbers. Scientists warnÃ that the planet is experiencing a sixth mass extinction that will have serious ecological, economic, and social consequences. If the loss of natural habitat around the globe does not slow, more extinctions are sure to follow.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Political science - Module ( Introduction to research ) - Essay Example The other hypothesis indicates that political democracy is related to the institutions and practices that are indispensable in the process of securing principles of transition to democracy. The method of research is based on numerous elements that will facilitate relevant compilation and utilization of the data by during the study. The research will be more oriented on the process and it will be a qualitative research, which will be following the sequence of various events for a period. Therefore, this will foster a substantial understanding of the democratization process form a regime of dictatorship. Data Collection: There will be preliminary gathering of data as a way of refining the thoughts of the researcher, where secondary data will be gathered for the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s reports and documents. The data gathered will contribute to sharpening focus on the problem statements of the research. Data Analysis: Data collected from the relevant sources will be analyzed in order to facilitate the process of drawing relevant information that can contribute significantly to developing a discussion. The research question will involve analysis of sets of couple data block, whereby every block will be a unit of variable matrix and these variables will have similar matrices. Discussion: The empirical evidence obtained from the analysis will be discussed based on the literature review in order to test the hypothesis of the research. The discussion will revolve around achievement of the research objective and answering the research question based on the information gathered from previous researches and the empirical evidence in the research. Conclusion and Recommendation: Ideas identified in the discussion section will be used to draw relevant concisions and recommendations. Recommendations in this research will be based on comparison of Egyptian process of democratization with Turkey regarding